Said the Spider to the Fly

“Will you walk into my parlour?” said the spider to the fly;
“’Tis the prettiest little parlour that ever you did spy.
The way into my parlour is up a winding stair,
And I have many pretty things to show when you are there.”
“O no, no,” said the little fly, “to ask me is in vain,
For who goes up your winding stair can ne’er come down again.”

This early 19th century poem by Mary Howitt paints a picture of a cunning spider trying to entice a fly into its web. In real life web-spinning spiders don’t try to inveigle flies, or any other form of insect, into their webs. Spider webs are spun across an area where prey is likely to fly or wander through, and (hopefully) blunder into (and get entangled in) the web. According to research, spiders collectively consume somewhere between 400 and 800 million tons of insects per year. Spider webs work pretty well then!

Orb web

Spider webs are made from spider silk which is produced from a number of silk glands located in the spider’s abdomen. The silk at this stage is a viscous liquid consisting of about 50% proteins and a mixture of other substances. The silk is extracted through special finger-like organs called spinnerets, which cause the protein molecules to align and form solid silk.

Modern web-spinning spiders have three pairs of spinnerets and each pair does a different job. The silk from the front spinnerets is used for attachment points, drag lines, and in the construction of the main frame threads of a web. The middle pair of spinnerets produce swathing silk used to wrap up prey and spin egg sacs. The rear spinnerets produce the gluey silk used in orb web construction.

Weight for weight, spider silk is up to 5 times stronger than steel of the same diameter. A silk fibre is approximately one micrometer in diameter which is about 80 times thinner than human hair. Male spiders often have fewer silk glands than female spiders – after all a male spider’s only purpose in life is to mate with females. Females need their full assortment of silk glands for web building, prey capture, and egg sac production.

Orb spider

Orb-weaving spiders, such as garden orb-weavers (Eriophora spp.), are very common in gardens, crops, vineyards and nurseries, and there are about 100 or so species scattered throughout Australia. These spiders usually construct a web in the evening and take it down at dawn. These orb webs are stretched across open spaces, which begs the question: How does a spider get her first thread across that open space?  She releases a long thread of silk which drifts in the breeze until it lands on something solid. If the attachment is to her liking she commences construction of the web proper, a process which takes about an hour. The web will be strong enough and flexible enough to stop a large insect flying into it at full speed. If the web was rigid rather than flexible it would break under such force. Garden orb-weaving spiders, like all other spiders are predators, meaning they are a beneficial presence in any garden, nursery, vineyard etc. The one in the image above has snared an Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera).

A web building spider may produce an egg sac containing hundreds of eggs. When those eggs hatch into spiderlings you might think the web would become overcrowded, but spiders have a clever solution for this potential problem. The spiderlings release a thread of silk which is picked up by the breeze and the spiderlings ride the air currents. This technique is known as ‘ballooning’ and spiderlings may be carried high up into the stratosphere and travel thousands of kilometres.

Sometimes there are mass ballooning events where many thousands of spiderlings descend on an area. There are numerous examples that will show up in a Google search. The media has a field day with these events, and they scare the living daylights out of arachnophobes everywhere. I guess nothing instills fear in arachnophobes more than the idea of venomous spiders raining down from the sky! Fear not – they are harmless baby spiders.

Orb weaving spider

My favourite web building spiders are the golden orb-weaving spiders (Nephila spp.) (pictured above). The ‘golden’ part of their common name refers to the colour of the web, not the colour of the spider itself. Their webs are huge, as much as a couple of meters across, permanent, and very strong. I know this from personal experience as I have blundered into them several times and basically bounced off! The webs are very complex, with a fine-meshed orb suspended in a maze of non-sticky barrier webs.

Female golden orb-weaving spiders sit head down in the middle of their orb waiting for prey to fly into the web and get stuck on its sticky threads. After she consumes the prey the remains are stacked into a string of debris in the centre of the orb. There is some debate about the purpose of this debris string – one of the theories is the debris alerts birds to the presence of the web so that they don’t fly into it and break it.

Finally, spiders shouldn’t be overlooked when it comes to insect pest management. I was amazed by the number of spiders I found in vineyards during my time with an Integrated Pest Management consultancy. In many cases spiders were the most numerous beneficial organism by far. Spiders are good!

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It’s got 6 legs but it’s not an insect!

Q. When is an animal with six legs not an insect? A. When it’s an entognathous hexapod.

Until fairly recently it was thought that all animals with six legs were insects. It is now widely accepted that there are two classes of six-legged animals – the insects (class Insecta) and the entognathous hexapods (class Entognatha).

The Entognatha are six-legged animals characterized by mouthparts which are hidden away in a pouch in their head (entognathous). The insects (Insecta) have mouthparts which are not hidden (ectognathous).

HEXAPOD Noun. (Greek, hex = six + pous = foot.) Any 6-legged arthropod.
ENTOGNATHOUS Adj. (Greek, entos = within, inner + gnathos = jaw + Latin, –osus = with property of.) Hexapods with mouthparts recessed within head.
ECTOGNATHOUS Adj. (Greek, ektos = outside + gnathos = jaw + Latin, –osus = with property of.) An organism with protruding mouthparts.

The class Entognatha contains three orders: Collembola (springtails), Protura and Diplura. As well as recessed mouthparts these three orders have a few other things in common. They are all wingless (apterous). Also there is no visible change in form between the life cycle stages other than in size, meaning they don’t go through a process of metamorphosis and so are termed ‘ametabolous’.

The largest of these orders is Collembola, the springtails. There may be as many as 2000 species in Australia, many of them undescribed. They are called springtails because they have a prong at the tip of their abdomen (known as a furca) that is folded back like a spring. When released, the individual is launched into the air. You can see the furca in the image below. Springtails are usually tiny animals about 1mm to 3 mm long.


Almost all springtails are considered beneficial species because they contribute to the breakdown of organic matter. There is one pest species in Australia and that is the so-called lucerne flea (Sminthuris viridis) which may damage emerging seedlings. Springtails don’t have eyes as such, instead they have a cluster of light sensing organs (known as ocelli) on each side of the head. You can see ocelli on the side of the head of the super cute springtail in the image below.


Protura are rarely seen, tiny (< 2 mm long), pale, hexapods which may occur in soil, leaf litter, decaying wood and moss. There are about 30 described species in Australia. They have no eyes or antennae and hold their front legs forward apparently to feel their way around. Proturans were not described until 1907 and to this day very little is known about their behaviour. Some species have been observed feeding on mycorrhizal fungi, but it remains to be seen if all Proturans feed exclusively on mycorrhizal fungi. The line drawing below comes from CSIRO.


There are 31 described species in the order Diplura which occur in Australia. They vary greatly in form and size from pale delicate hexapods less than 5 mm in length to robust earwig-like species which may reach 50 mm in length. Diplurans have no eyes but do have a pair of antennae. They also have a pair of abdominal appendages known as cerci which are filamentous in the families Campodeidae and Projapygidae, but pincer-like in the families Japygidae, Heterojapygidae and Parajapygidae.

Diplurans of the families Campodeidae and Parajapygidae appear to be herbivorous, Projapygidae may be omnivorous, while the rest appear to be carnivorous. Heterojapyx (picture below) is certainly carnivorous. It waits buried in soil with only its pincers (forceps) above the surface, ready to grab any unsuspecting prey wandering by. Superficially it may resemble an earwig, but the lack of eyes and wings gives it away. I had never seen one of these in the flesh until recently when I stumbled upon one while chopping wood on my property. What a find!


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Preying on a mantis

For every insect out there, there is another insect which will try to eat it or breed in or on it.

Praying mantids are common predatory insects found in virtually any part of Australia in any habitat where they can find prey. Mantids are an insect Order all of their own known as Mantodea, comprising about 2,500 species worldwide, and about 200 Australian species. These insects are commonly called ‘mantises’ or singularly as a ‘mantis’ – but they are more correctly known as ‘mantids’ or singularly as a ‘mantid’.

Mantids are instantly recognisable insects with their triangular heads and their characteristic way of standing with forelegs held together as if they were praying – hence ‘praying’ mantid (image below). The word ‘mantis’ is derived from the Greek word for ‘seer’ or ‘prophet’, which probably alludes to their praying stance. There is a genus of mantids bearing the name Mantis – for example the classic ‘praying mantis’ Mantis religiosa found through Europe, Asia and Africa. Australia only has one representative of that genus, a mantid known as Mantis octospilota.

Praying mantid

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What’s good about ants? Plenty.

Many people, especially gardeners, only see ants as pests, but they couldn’t be further from the truth. These days I work weekends in a garden centre, and when summer arrived every second customer I encountered wanted a product to kill ants. One person even asked me for the “Agent Orange” of ant insecticides! They were somewhat bemused when I asked “What sort of ants are they, and why do you want to kill them?”

ponerine ant
This harmless ponerine ant is holding a water drop in its mandibles.

Continue reading What’s good about ants? Plenty.

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