An accidental discovery

Many insects are difficult to identify at the larva/nymph or pupa stage of their life cycle, so I often rear juvenile insects through to adulthood to be certain of what they are. Sometimes the insect which emerges inside the container is not what I was expecting!

A few years ago I was sent some insect specimens to be identified. The insects were causing considerable damage (lots of distorted and shriveled leaves) to a Murraya hedge (Murraya paniculata) in a garden on the NSW central coast. Peering down my microscope I could see what looked like psyllid nymphs (Psyllidae), but I couldn’t see any psyllid adults to confirm it. In the image below you can see a nymph with wing buds (indicated by the arrow). I must admit it’s not the best image I’ve ever shot!

psyllid murraya

I put the nymphs, and the leaves they were on, into a sealed container and waited. A few days later there were tiny adult insects about 2mm long flying around inside the container. They were not psyllids; they were tiny wasps – the parasites of psyllids! I identified the little wasps as being in the genus Psyllaephagus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). There are about 60 wasps in that genus found in Australia, and they are exclusively parasites of psyllids – so the insects damaging the Murraya hedge had to be psyllids! After a few days my jar was full of these little wasps, indicating that the psyllid infestation on that Murraya hedge was heavily parasitised.


So what to do with the hedge? Psyllids can be controlled with a couple of horticultural oil sprays. But an oil spray would kill parasitic wasps, especially ones this small, as efficiently as killing the psyllid nymphs. The specimens in the jar indicated that the majority of the psyllids were parasitised, and would cause no further damage. Personally I wouldn’t spray at all in such a situation, because I would be confident of the wasps winning the overall battle. However it is difficult to convince other people to let nature take its course – yep, the hedge was sprayed by the landowners. I need to be more convincing next time!

I have had unexpected guests in my insect containers on other occasions. For example, I collected a mantid egg case (ootheca) and kept it in a container on my desk so I could watch the nymphs hatch. Unfortunately I didn’t put the lid on the container properly. One morning I caught a movement out of the corner of my eye and looked up to see several tiny mantid nymphs lined up on the top of my computer monitor. There were also several on my desk lamp, my phone, book shelves, the slatted blind, computer speakers, the printer, and so on. It took a while, but I managed to wrangle them all into a container and released them outside.

mantis nymph

Later that day I was able to take some photographs (like the one above) and videos (I’ll use that footage sometime) of other mantid nymphs emerging from the egg case. But it was what happened next that was more interesting. When I examined the container a couple of days later what did I found flying around inside it? You guessed it – several parasitic wasps (about 3-4mm body length). I identified them as Podagrion sp. (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) wasps – known parasites of mantid egg cases.


As you can see from the photograph above the female wasp has a long ovipositor (it’s as long as her body), but she must insert it in a mantid egg case before it hardens. To achieve this she either follows the mantid female, or hitches a ride (a behaviour known in zoology as phoresy). As soon as the mantid egg case is complete, she inserts her eggs inside. Later, the wasp eggs hatch into wasp larvae which feed on the mantid eggs within the protection of the mantid egg case. In the end about 100 mantid nymphs and 50 Podagrion wasps emerged from that single mantid egg case. Male Podagrion wasps are pretty cool too (below). They look just like the female but without the long ovipositor.

Podagrion male

As mentioned above, the mantid egg case yielded a mixture of mantid nymphs and Podagrion parasitic wasps. In other words the mantids weren’t wiped out entirely. Some people think that parasitism is a bad thing. I think it’s incredible that these tiny wasps have evolved to occupy an ecological niche such as the inside of a psyllid nymph, or a mantid egg case! The wasps’ lives are so entwined with that of their host insects, that the wasps can’t survive without that other insect. If the wasps killed 100% of their hosts 100% of the time, the wasps would die out. That would be a tad counterproductive!

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Hunting the Hunter (Part 2)

Hunting the Hunter (Part 1) was written about a year ago – you can read it here. That post was mostly about spider-hunting wasps of the family Pompilidae, and finished with the image below as a bit of a teaser to this second part.

spider fly

The image shows several fly larvae (the arrow-headed segmented hairy things) and lots of eggs (the black ovoid things). They are the eggs and larvae of flies from the family Acroceridae. Adult flies of this family may be known as ‘bladder flies’, ‘small-headed flies’, ‘hump-back flies’, or ‘spider flies’. The image below indicates how a couple of those common names may have come about.

bladder fly

Acrocerid flies are well known for having enlarged compound eyes that meet in the middle of their head, which probably provides an extended field of vision. The adults of some species have elongated proboscises, sometimes longer than their entire body. The individual pictured here is of the genus Ogcodes which has a very short proboscis.

The larval stages of acrocerid flies are endoparasitoids (i.e. internal parasites) of spiders. After a pair of acrocerid flies have mated, the female flies deposit tiny eggs en masse on dead twigs, grass stems, fences, wires, and other structures. The eggs are so small the egg mass looks like soot at first sight (as you can see in the image below). There may be as many as 5000 ‘microtype’ eggs in each egg mass – all of which may hatch into spider-seeking larvae.

Ogcodes eggs

First instar larvae (such as the ones in the image at the top of this post) are free-living planidia which actively seek out suitable spider hosts. The spines that you can see on the larvae must really help when climbing onto a hairy spider.

Once an acrocerid larva finds a spider, it burrows inside, attaches to the spider’s book lungs, and begins feeding on its body fluids. The larva moults three times, growing larger each time, feeding all the while. The final instar (growth stage) larva kills the spider just prior to emerging from it. The acrocerid larva consumes the entire contents of the spider’s body, leaving an empty exoskeleton. The larva then pupates, and an adult acrocerid fly eventually emerges from the pupa. The image below shows a male (left) and a female (right) of the genus Ogcodes.


Many people think of flies as being either dirty (as in the case of house flies Musca domestica) or annoying (bush flies Musca vetustissima). There is much more to flies than that! There are about 7000 species of flies described in Australia so far, and there may be as many as 30,000 species here. If acrocerid flies are anything to go by, there must be lots of flies with amazing life cycles that we don’t know about yet!

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(Don’t Fear) The Hippoboscidae

I spent most of today with a fly. That may seem like a huge waste of time, but this was no ordinary fly – it was a wallaby fly. The closest I usually get to one of these flies is when I see a wallaby in the garden furiously flicking its ears trying to dislodge one. The individual here took a liking to me in the garden, and hitched a ride inside.

Flies of the family Hippoboscidae are all blood-sucking ectoparasites, i.e. parasites that live on the outside of their hosts. These flies usually cling to the hair of mammals or feathers of birds depending on the fly species involved. They have characteristically flattened bodies, powerful legs, and fishhook-like claws (clearly visible in the image below). You can see now why they are known generally as ‘louse flies’. There are more than 200 species found throughout the world (30 species here), and about 75% of them are ectoparasites of birds.

Wallaby Fly Hippoboscidae

Continue reading (Don’t Fear) The Hippoboscidae

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